If you have a court judgment regarding a class action that was not included in our database, we kindly ask you to send a copy through the contact form available here, or via post to the following address: "Kubas Kos Gałkowski Adwokaci sp. p.” sp. k., ul. Rakowicka 7, 31-511 Kraków. Before including the sent judgments in our database, we will anonymise them (remove any personal information). We also invite you send your publications regarding class actions, we will include them in the section entitled: bibliography.


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General Comments

Issues related to collective pursuit of claims undoubtedly falls within the area of civil procedure that has been dynamically developing in recent…

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United States

The beginnings of the class action in the American legal system date back as far as the mid-19th century, whereas for more than one hundred years…

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Projects aimed at strengthening the mechanisms of collective pursuit of claims in the EU

On the European level, in order to guarantee…

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The Austrian Code of Civil Procedure (Zivilprozessordnung, ZPO) does not contain provisions regulating an independent collective…

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Belgium does not have a typical class action mechanism. In principle, Belgian law does not at all provide for the possibility for a claimant to appear…

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Interesting measures of collective redress are provided for in Danish legislation. The possibility of applying both opt-in and opt-out procedures is a characteristic of the Danish model…

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Until March 2014, the French law did not provide for a typical mechanism for collective pursuit of claims. However, under the French Act…


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The present German law has not introduced any mechanism for collective pursuit of claims equivalent to a typical class action where a single entity initiates…

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The class action mechanism was implemented in the Italian legal system in 2007 as a result of an amendment to the Italian Consumer Code…

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Until recently, Japanese law provided only a few traditional methods of collective pursuit of claims…

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Portuguese law has long known the institution of the so-called citizen’s action (ação popular). Its roots date back to the 16th century while today…

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The institution of class action was introduced into Russian law as a consequence of the amendment of the Russian Commercial Procedure Code…

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The institution of class action was introduced in Spanish law in 2001 with the entry into force of the Civil Procedure Act (Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil)…

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The debate on implementation of collective redress mechanisms within Swedish law commenced as early as the 1970s. In 2002, the debate resulted…

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The Netherlands

Among the European mechanisms for collective pursuit of claims, very interesting solutions were adopted in the Netherlands. Admittedly, Dutch law…

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United Kingdom

At present, the institution of collective statement of claim, understood as the American class action, i.e. a type of a group (collective) action does not exist…

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